• A clan-based terrorist group
  • Militant wing of the Somali Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC)
  • SCIC – southern Somalia based federation of clan-based Islamic courts
  • SCIC – an alliance of Sharia courts
  • By 2006, captured almost whole of southern Somalia
  • 2007 – defeated by Ethiopian forces
  • African Union led military op to cleanse the group
  • But still a violent force in central and southern Somalia
  • Deadly attacks by the terror group in East Africa
  • Neighboring countries on target, Kenya, Djibouti saw big attacks by it 
  • A clan-based terrorist group – facing internal politics and leadership issues
  • Linked with AO, merged in 2012
  • Final goal – an Islamic state driven by it in Somalia


  • Al-Ittihad Al-Islami (AIAI, OR “Unity of Islam”)
  • Al-Shabaab’s breeding ground – active in 1990s
  • Somali extremists – educated and radicalized in the Middle East
  • Osama bin Laden – funding and arming them
  • 2000s – rift in AIAI – soft old guard Vs young terror mercenaries
  • Old guard – a political front
  • Mercenaries – a Greater Somalia with Islamic Rule
  • They joined SCIC – became its youth militia or militant wing
  • SCIC won Somalian capital Mogadishu in June 2006
  • Ethiopia, invaded Somalia in Dec 2006
  • SCIC was defeated in early months of 2007
  • Next some years saw – Al-Shabaab – emerging as a dreaded terror group


  • Extreme sharia interpretation
  • Restrictions on entertainment
  • No movies, no TV, no music
  • On watching international matches 
  • Arrest and punishment
  • Cannot shave your beards
  • Adulterers – stoning/amputations
  • Lashing in public areas

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